Bilingual Education

This paper is for Human Geography.

This is my research proposal and 3 resources with their annotated bib:

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Kiki Dhaliwal

GEOG 1110-W02

Proposal and Annotated Bibliography



Research Proposal


Magnitudes of scientific research concluded that bilingual education is progressive and has a significant positive impact on individuals of all ages. Bilingual education can have positive impacts on a country in the following ways: Improves cultural diversity and multiculturalism by fostering an openness to immigrants, minority rights, and unique cultural music, literature and entertainment. It gives minority language speakers a sense of place and produces a unique cultural landscape. It leads to diverse social interaction. Bilingual students can have more improved knowledge, perspectives, and skill sets as opposed to monolingual students. It establishes political identity which may prevent potential political conflict due to self-government. It improves political relationships and finally, can develop global business opportunities and promote tourism. However, it is a controversial topic because some see bilingual education as regressive. A few ways bilingual education can have a negative impact on a country: It can create discrimination and ethnocentrism which can lead to poor social and political interactions. Areas within a country may regionalize due to language causing conflict or seeking independence. It can cause a lack of unity. Bilingual education is expensive. Finally, an increased cost to broadcast public information, safety and provide products and services in more than one language. The purpose of this research paper will be to investigate the arguments of this controversy in the western world by applying the following geographical concepts: Westernization and Cultural Imperialism by discussing the effects of western superiority mindset on bilingualism, how it affects the education system and language rights. Ethnicity and Territory will be used to discuss the segregation of ethnic groups caused by discrimination and how it negatively impacts a country. Geography and Language will be used to illustrate the importance of language in cultural identity and how to use it to establish ethnic, regional, and national differences that can improve a country whereas the loss of a language can severely impact the future of the culture negatively. Finally, Globalization will be used to discuss how it has made the geography of language more effective by avoiding problems in directing a population, governments state one national language to aid communication and allow efficient administration of business. However, where official languages are stated, indigenous languages are threatened. This is why bilingual education is important to maintain for the sake of the people and a country. The use of these geographical concepts along with scholarly articles and other resources listed below will conclude that bilingual education is more progressive than regressive in the western world.




Annotated Bibliography


Byers-Heinlein, K., & Lew-Williams, C. (2013). Bilingualism in the Early Years: What the Science Says. LEARNing Landscapes, 7(1), 95-112. doi:10.36510/learnland.v7i1.632

This paper answers questions, concerns and myths with scientific research from parents who are enquiring about the costs and benefits of bilingualism for their children. Most children in North America and around the world are exposed to two languages from an early age. These answers inform parents on how to best support language performance in their children. This paper is relevant to my research because it supports the benefits and progressiveness of bilingual education. It will contribute insight to children’s confusion, greater cognitive development, strategies to promote bilingual learning when to start bilingual learning and language disorders. This will further solidify my thesis statement.

Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2017). Language Rights and Bilingual Education. Bilingual and Multilingual Education, 51-63. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-02258-1_6

This paper questions and attempts to answer if indigenous and minority children have the right to higher learning of their own languages or at least their dominant language in the country of their residence. It also questions if “schools support Indigenous/tribal/minority communities right to reproduce themselves as Indigenous/tribal peoples/minorities” (Skutnabb-Kangas, 2017) and if those children enjoy the right to linguistic education. This paper is relevant to my research because it analyses how bilingual education converges with issues of language rights. It will contribute to my paper by presenting important legal requirements, discussing their meanings and how this can be seen as discriminatory.

Tucker, G. (1999, July 31). A Global Perspective on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. ERIC Digest. Retrieved November 03, 2020, from

This paper shows how though a small number of languages are necessary for global communication, they are spoken as “second, third, fourth, or later-acquired languages” and “fewer than 25% of the world’s approximately 200 countries recognize two or more official languages” (Tucker, 1999). However, regardless of these state official languages, data shows that there are more bilingual/multilingual people in the world than monolinguals and more children in the world that are taught in a second or a later-acquired language. This form of education shows proficient cognitive skills which are viewed as more desirable by educators, employers, governments, and parents. This paper is relevant to my research because it analyses how bilingualism or multilingualism is more popular than monolingualism and why it is more desirable and beneficial. It will contribute to my paper by further solidifying why bilingual education should be more prominent in western education, thus resulting in a greater and smarter workforce.



Bibliography for Paper


Heller, M. (2000). Bilingualism and identity in the post-modern world. Sociolinguistic Studies, 1(2). doi:10.1558/sols.v1i2.9

Cummins, J. (1986). Empowering Minority Students: A Framework for Intervention. Harvard Educational Review, 56(1), 18-37. doi:10.17763/haer.56.1.b327234461607787

Ozfidan, B., & Toprak, M. (2019). Cultural Awareness on A Bilingual Education: A Mixed Method Study. Multicultural Learning and Teaching, 15(1). doi:10.1515/mlt-2017-0019

Ramírez-Esparza, N., & García-Sierra, A. (2014). The Bilingual Brain: Language, Culture, and Identity. Retrieved 2020, from

MoraModules. (2020). The Bilingual Education Controversy: A Road Map. Retrieved November 03, 2020, from

Knox, P. L., & Marston, S. A. (2010). Places and regions in global context: Human geography. New York: Prentice Hall.

International School Parent. (2020, October 14). The Benefits of a Bilingual Education. Retrieved November 03, 2020, from (2019, January 29). Why Bilingual Students Have a Cognitive Advantage for Learning to Read. Retrieved November 03, 2020, from

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