chose the option one or two

Critical Thinking Assignment (90 Points)
Important! Read First
Choose one of the following two assignments to complete this week. Do not do both assignments. Identify your assignment choice in the title of your submission.
Option #1: The Research Concept and Validity: Bite Mark Comparison
Lately bite mark comparison’s validity has been very questioned. For this CT assignment, review the documentation provided at: Innocence Project (Links to an external site.) and 3D imaging for bite mark analysis (Links to an external site.) web pages. Write a paper considering whether bite mark analysis should still be a valid measure of evidence or not. Was the measurement conceptualized accordingly? Why or why not? Remember to support your statements with evidence. How would it look, if you were to produce the measurements?
Your paper must be concise, well written, and should meet the following:
• Length: 2-3 pages (not counting cover and references pages).
• To support your statements, cite a minimum of 2 scholarly journal sources that are not provided or linked in this course. The Campus Library (Links to an external site.) database is very useful to find this type of scholarly sources.
• Formatted in compliance with the APA Style Guide Requirements (Links to an external site.).
Option #2: Measurement
In the 1968 case of Terry v. Ohio (392 U.S. 1), the Supreme Court wrote of a police officer, “he testified that he had been a policeman for 39 years and a detective for 35, and that he had been assigned to patrol this vicinity of downtown Cleveland for shoplifters and pickpockets for 30 years. He explained that he had developed routine habits of observation over the years, and that he would “stand and watch people or walk and watch people at many intervals of the day.” He added: “Now, in this case, when I looked over, they didn’t look right to me at the time.”
Write a paper on reliability in the context of police patrol and focus on the following statement: “Reliability does not ensure accuracy any more than precision does.”
Your paper must be concise, well written, and should meet the following:
• Length: 2-3 pages (not counting cover and references pages).
• To support your statements, cite a minimum of 2 scholarly journal sources that are not provided or linked in this course. The Campus Library (Links to an external site.) database is very useful to find this type of scholarly sources.
• Formatted in compliance with theAPA Style Guide Requirements (Links to an external site.).

Applied Research for Criminal Justice Professionals
Module 2: Conceptualization and Measurement
“Gathering data without careful conceptualization or conscientious efforts to operationalize key concepts is often a wasted effort. The difficulties of achieving valid measurement vary with the concept being operationalized and the circumstances of the particular study…. planning ahead is the key to achieving valid measurement in your own research; careful evaluation is the key to sound decisions about the validity of measures in others’ research. Statistical tests can help determine whether a given measure is valid after data have been collected, but if it appears after the fact that a measure is invalid, little can be done to correct the situation. If you cannot tell how key concepts were operationalized when you read a research report, do not trust the findings. And if a researcher does not indicate the results of tests used to establish the reliability and validity of key measures, remain skeptical.” (Bachman & Schutt, 2017, p. 110)
When doing empirical research, abstracts must be translated into observable and measurable variables. Determining levels of measurement consists of two basic processes called conceptualization and operationalization—the most important and beginning steps for any research. The validity and reliability of measurement directly affect the quality of research findings and conclusions. We must always assess the reliability of a measure if we hope to be able to establish its validity. This module provides an overview of this important research lingo. You will see how it is applied in research operations by participating in the discussion and developing your paper. Are you ready for a new chapter on research methods?
Learning Outcomes
1. Discuss why and how to operationalize concepts in research.
2. Recognize validity and reliability of measurement.
3. Distinguish levels of measurement and their applications.
For Your Success & Readings
The following recommendations and reminders will adjust your expectations and help you be successful in this module and the course:
• Post on time in the discussion.
• Feedback will be essential in the Discussion Board, because we will be expanding on the discussion each week. Each response to a colleague is worth 5 points (up to 25 points).
• You have 2 Critical Thinking Assignments options this week. You are to choose one option to complete.
• There will be a one hour live chat this week.
• Chapter 4 in The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice
• Gordon, S., Rotheram-borus, M., Skeen, S., Perry, C., Bryant, K., & Tomlinson, M. (2017). Research priorities for the intersection of alcohol and HIV/AIDS in low and middle income countries: A priority setting exercise. AIDS and Behavior, 21, 262-273.
• Reyes, H. L., Foshee, V. A., Niolon, P. H., Reidy, D. E., & Hall, J. E. (2016). Gender role attitudes and male adolescent dating violence perpetration: Normative beliefs as moderators. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(2), 350-360.
• Iroh, P. A., Mayo, H., & Nijhawan, A. E. (2015). The HIV care cascade before, during, and after incarceration: A systematic review and data synthesis. American Journal of Public Health, 105(7), E5-E16.
Bachman, R., & Schutt, R. K. (2017). The practice of research in criminology and criminal justice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. ISBN-13: 9781506306810
Maxfield, M. G., & Babbie, E. (2009) Basics of research methods for criminal justice and criminology (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Stevens, S. (Ed.) (1951). Handbook of experimental psychology. New York, NY: Wil

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