This assignment requires that you watch the movie “Long walk to freedom.” Please watch it then read the assignment description below:
Write a cohesive essay that addresses all of the 8 questions in the end.
“Introduction to SOUTH AFRICA: In 1624 the Dutch (from the Netherlands) established a colony at a natural deep water harbor on the Atlantic Ocean. Here they could practice their new Protestant religion (Dutch Reformed Church), farm the land, raise families, and establish a trade center far from home. Dutch maritime merchants were at their peak in the 17th century and established the Dutch West (and East) India Company to facilitate trade. They excelled in the new settlement and built walls and canals (like in Holland) for protection from the ocean. The Dutch named their colony New Amsterdam. In 1664 they lost control of this place to the English, who renamed it, and a hundred and twenty years later it would become the first capital of the United States. The Dutch built sea wall remains only in name as Wall Street as well as the moniker “John Cheese,” a derogatory name for Dutch settlers pronounced Yan-Kees in local slang.
In the same time period on the other side of the Atlantic the Dutch established a new settlement at a place they called Kaapstad. When the English officially captured this town from the Dutch in 1814, it became known as Cape Town, capital of the new British land called Cape Colony. The Europeans found this to be the most wonderful place to colonize and PERMANENTLY SETTLE in Africa because they were not ravaged by disease here. This was not in the tropics, but in the temperate climate zone of Africa. The Dutch and English settlers drove any local Africans out of good farm lands. They also introduced slavery of Africans here. This “colony” was far unlike other European colonies in Africa that were only used to extract products and resources ( slaves, ivory, gold, diamonds, copper, tea, coffee, sugar, etc.). Here, settlers stayed and raised families, farmed the land, and created their own way of life, much like settlers in America. See https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/dutch-settlement
In 1836 many of the people of Dutch heritage, now called Boers (“farmers”) or Afrikaners, would start to leave the area of British rule on what became known as the “Great Trek.” They moved across the Great Karoo into the lands of the Xhosa and Zulu people an established their own states with no political connection the Netherlands or UK. These new Boer republics of the Orange Free State and Transvaal, also known as the Republic of South Africa, started the collapse of the powerful Zulu Kingdom. The British would retain the Cape Colony in the west. See: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Trek
In 1886 following the discovery of an extremely large amount of gold on a Transvaal farm a town was established called Johannesburg (“Joberg”). In ten years it grew to 100,000 people (today more than 8 million). Laws were passed restricting black Africans from owning gold or diamond mines (also found in large amounts!). This was the beginning of racial segregation laws later called by the Afrikaans word “Apartheid.” Cecil Rhodes from England would rise up to be a millionaire and political leader here by the age 25. He would name Rhodesia after himself and die at age 48. The political leader of the Afrikaners was the elderly Boer farmer Paul Kruger (the Krugerrand currency and a world class national park bear his name). Greed for land, power, gold, and diamonds led to the South African War (the “Boer War”) between the British and the Afrikaners (Dutch) in 1898-1902. Note: The Dutch language spoken by original settlers evolved into a new language called “Afrikaans.” See: https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/settler-colonialism-and-afrikaner-nationalism
The eventual result of the South African War was the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910, with three capital cities. It was no longer a colony but a new state with a powerful white minority (20% of population). Most people of British heritage lived in coastal cities like Cape Town and Port Elizabeth while much of the Afrikaners lived in the interior north. All cities were made up of many ethnic groups by the 1920s, including a large number of Indian and Malay heritage (still officially called “Coloured), Zulus, Xhosas, and other new European settlers. The leaders of South Africa saw their country as similar to the USA or Australia but with one major difference: the white people were a minority. South Africa became the largest exporter of gold and diamonds in the 20th century. To hold on to this wealth and power the newly elected white government of South Africa in 1948 established official APARTHEID Laws. Apartheid Laws required everyone to carry a pass showing WHAT they were. People were segregated by locations (blacks were eventually forced out of cities), occupation (a black person could not hold a job above a white person), education, military, hospitals, voting (the black majority could not vote), and a strong racial class system developed of whites (Afrikaners and English didn’t get along either), Asians, Coloureds, and Black Africans. This was a minority ruled country. Black Africans were forced to relocate to public housing projects in the “Townships.” Outside of Johannesburg, the SOuth WEst TOwnship was called SOWETO, for example, and has over a million people. Many South Africans saw this as similar to segregation laws in the American south that lasted into the 1960s. No anti-apartheid activities were tolerated at all and many people speaking out, both blacks and whites, found themselves in prison or worse. No freedom of the press or speech and no television (until 1976) in South Africa. See: https://www.history.com/topics/africa/apartheid
Now that you know a little history and geography up through the Apartheid era, now usually called the time of “White Privilege” by South Africans, you must watch this movie about the best known African of our lifetime, Nelson Mandela.
This is a major movie about the life and times of Nelson Mandela (1918-2013). Prepare about a 4-6 page essay about YOUR thoughts on his life as portrayed in this movies based on his autobiography. Within your essay, please address the following questions:
1. What cities are shown in this film? What do they look like to you? What about rural areas? Where?
2. How could Nelson Mandela be a lawyer? Weren’t Africans restricted in their education?
3. What happened at Sharpeville in 1960? Why was there a protest? How did this change things?
4. Who is F.W de Klerk? He won the Nobel Prize. How would you describe his leadership? He is a hero to many but not all.
5. How many years was Mandela (whom is called “Madiba”) imprisoned? Why? Where?
6. What is the role of Winnie Mandela in this story? Good? What happened to her?
7. What is the ANC? Is it still important in Africa?
8. Did Nelson Mandela actually see this film? If so, what did he think of it? When did this film premiere in London?”
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