1. Which of the following factors is (are) used for calculating the risk of developing a disease?

(Select all that apply)

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Group of answer choices

information in a family medical history

compare genetic tests to lists of genes that contribute to major common diseases

comparing an individual’s family history to data collected from large families affected by a disease

cultural, social, and environmental risk factors shared by a family

2. Which of the following genetic disorders involves a single gene?
Group of answer choices


Turner Syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome

Williams Syndrome

Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

3. Most common diseases involve _____ inheritance patterns. So risk can be estimated but not calculated. Persons in each risk group share characteristics that correlate with a certain probability of developing a disease.

(Select the best answer)

Group of answer choices





4. Anthony Allison mapped the prevalence of the sickle cell condition in Kenya and discovered that in areas where there is a high incidence of sickle cell there is also a high incidence of _____.

(Select all that apply)

Group of answer choices

Plasmodium falciparum



5. People who are _____ have a selective advantage in areas where Anopheles mosquitoes carrying the Plasmodium falciparum parasite are prevalent.
Group of answer choices

homozygous for the sickle cell gene

homozygous for the normal globin gene

heterozygous for the sickle cell gene

6. The drug Prialt was developed by synthesizing a compound found in _____ venom.
Group of answer choices

black widow spider

rattle snake

scorpion fish

cone snail

7. Microbes can become resistant to antibiotics and prevent the antibiotics from damaging them. Why?

(Select all that apply)

Group of answer choices

While most of the bacteria succumb to the antibiotic, the few that survive go on to reproduce and replicate the resistance.

When bacteria reproduce, chance mutations that can protect the bacterium against a particular antibiotic occur.

The antibiotic changes the DNA of the bacterial cells.

Bacteria reproduce very fast.

In any large population of bacteria, a few cells will be present which possess 1:54 traits that enable them to survive.
8. Which of the following are parts of an evolutionary explanation for high levels of obesity in the modern world?

(Select all that apply)

Group of answer choices

Fat, salt, and sugar were in such large supplies in the paleoenvironment that our ancestors ignored them.

Humans prefer what was in short supply on the African savanna.

In the environment in which we evolved, natural selection shaped appetite regulation mechanisms to ensure that we survived periods of famine.

We choose our levels of exercise to maximize our caloric expenditure.

9. Genetic material can be transferred between bacteria as _____.

(Select all that apply)

Group of answer choices




naked DNA

10. You are a doctor who examines a swollen and warm puncture wound on the hand of a patient. Which was not a response of the patient’s immune system to this injury when it occurred?

The innate immune system triggered an inflammation response.
Phagocytes attacked foreign cells that entered the wound.
Cell division was inhibited at the wound site.
Antibodies were produced as part of the adaptive immune response.
11. Refer to the graph shown indicating relative antibody response. At which point on the curve would you expect circulating, novel viral concentrations to be highest?

12. A loss-of-function mutation in the gene for CD8 on a cytotoxic T cell results in the T cell:

causing the development of an autoimmune disorder.
being able to bind to antigens on bacteria to trigger phagocytosis.
being unable to bind major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins.
switching to a helper T cell.

13. What is the function of a toll-like receptor?

to bind to cytokines
to facilitate the release of histamine
to bind to self molecules
to bind to surface molecules present on pathogens
14. Clonal selection is a process in which:

sequence information from the antigen is copied into the DNA of a B cell.
genomic rearrangement responds to the presence of antigen to produce the diverse array of antibodies.
an antibody binding to antigen results in mitotic cell division.
binding of an antibody to a cell causes the cell to die.
15. The secretion of cytokines is a function of:

killer T cells.
cytotoxic T cells.
plasma cells.
helper T cells.
16. What type of cells are targeted by a cytotoxic T cell?

All of these choices are correct.
an opsonized pathogen
an encapsulated bacteria
a virus-infected host cell
17. Why would the loss of helper T cells due to HIV infection result in the immunodeficiency associated with AIDS?

Helper T cells are central to the activation of other parts of the immune system.
Infection of the helper T cells could lead to infection and loss of progenitor cells, thereby eliminating all immune cells.
Helper T cells are normally present in higher numbers, so their loss reduces the total number of immune cells.
Without helper T cells, plasma cells would not secrete antibodies.
18. Antigen presentation by MHC class I proteins is a signal for:

secretion of antibodies by B cells.
cytokine release by helper T cells.
attack by cytotoxic T cells.
activation of cytotoxic T cells by helper T cells.
19. How do T cells contribute to the immune response?

by the production of antibodies
by removing pathogens by phagocytosis
by activating the complement system
by cell-mediated immunity

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