The Cell: Transport Mechanisms and Cell Permeability Exercise 5 Review Sheet: The

Exercise S: The Cell: Transport Mechanisms and Cell Permeability
Exercise 5 Review Sheet: The Cell:
Transport Mechanisms and Permeability
Choose all answers that apply to questions 1 and 2, and place their letters on the response blanks to the right.
1. Molecular motion
a. reflects the kinetic energy of molecules
b. reflects the potential energy of molecules
c. is ordered and predictable
d. is random and erratic
2. Speed af molecular movement
a. is higher in larger molecules
b. is lower in larger molecules
c. increases with increasing temperature
d. decreases with increasing temperature
e. reflects kinetic energy
3. Summarize below the results ofActivity 3 g, Investigating Diffusion and Osmosis Through Nonliving Membranes. List and explain your observations relative to tests used to identify diffusing substances, and the changes in sac weight you observed.
Sac 1 containing 40% glucose, suspended in distilled water
Sac 2 containing 40% glucose, suspended in 40% glucose
Sac 3 containing 10% NaC1, suspended in distilled water
Sac 4 containing 40% sucrose and Congo red dye, suspended in distilled water
4. What single characteristic of the selectively permeable membranes used in the laboratory determines the substances that can pass through them?
In addition ta this characteristic, what other factors influence the passage of substances through living membranes?
5. A semipermeable sac filled with a solution containing 4% NaCl, 9% glucose, and 10%
albumin is suspended in a solution with the following composition: 10% NaCl, 10% ucose, and 40% albumin. Assume that the sac is permeable to all substances except albumin. State whether each of the following will (a) move into the sac, (b) move out of the sac, or (c) not move.
ucose :

6. Summarize below the results ofActivity 5 g, Experiment 1 (Investigating Diffusion and Osmosis Through Living Membranes—the egg). List and explain your observations.
Egg 1 in distilled water:
Egg 2 in 30% sucrose:
7. The diagrams below represent three microscope fields containing red blood cells. Arrows show the direction of net osmosis. Which field contains a hypertonic solution? The cells in this field are said to be
Which field contains an isotonic bathing solution?
Which field contains a hypotonic solution?
What is happening to the cells in this field?

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Why This Matters
8. Many classroom protocols for extracting DNA from cheek cells instruct students to swish Gatorade in their mouths as they gently scrape the inside of the cheek with the teeth. WVhy would it be better to use Gatorade than plain water? (Hint: You want DNA from the cheek cells to end up in the test tube, not in your mouth.)
9. Drinking too much plain water in a short period of time can result in water intoxication. As a result, blood plasma will become hypotonic. What effect do you think this would
h Ave And
10. Assume you are conducting the experiment illustrated in the next figure. Both hydrochloric acid (HCI), with a molecular weight of about 36.5, and ammonium hydroxide (NH40H), with a molecular weight of 35, are volatile and easily enter the gaseous state.
When they meet, the following reaction will occur:
HC1+NH40H * H20+NH4C1
Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) will be deposited on the glass tubing as a smoky precipitate where the two gases meet. Predict which gas will diffuse more quickly, and indicate to which end of the tube the smoky precipitate will be closer.
a. The faster-diffusing gas is
b. The precipitate forms closer to the end.
Rubber stopper Cotton wad with HCI Cotton wad with NH40H

11. What determines whether a transport process is active or passive?
12. Characterize membrane transport as fully as possible by choosing all the phrases that apply and inserting their letters on the answer blanks
Passive processes: Active processes:
a. account for the movement of fats and respiratoly gases through the plasma membrane
b. explain phagocytosis and pinocytosis
c. include osmosis, simple diffusion, and filtration
d. may occur against concentration and/or electrical gradients
e. use hydrostatic pressure or molecular energy as the driving force
f. move ions, amino acids, and some sugars across the plasma membrane
13. For the osmometer demonstration (Activity 4@), explain why the level of the water calumn rose during the laboratory session.
14. Define the following terms.
selective permeability:
diffusion :
simple diffusion:
facilitated diffusio osmosts:
vesicula r transport:

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