Instructions: Please read my Literature Review which I would attach, so you could have the background information of my Research paper. What I need for you to do, is the page for the Results, for the Research paper. Attached please also find my Methods paper; since you would need the same 5 References that I used in Methods; for when you develop the Results paper. For the Results paper I also need to add a table, or a graph showing the Results’ information on the research paper. If you have any questions feel free to send a message. Thanks
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The onset and spread of this epidemic are well documented from the 1980s. The CDC reported the onset of “pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP),” a rare lung disease in June 1981 (De Cock, et al 2012). Five young gays had been diagnosed with this condition in Los Angeles. According to the CDC, all five patients manifested unusual infections, which denoted a dysfunctional immune system. By the time CDC published this report, two of the patients had died while the remaining were in critical condition. Therefore, the CDC reported what later came to be termed the AIDS epidemic. On the same day, Dr. Alvin Friedman, a dermatologist from New York, also informed the CDC of “Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS),” an unusual and rare form of aggressive cancer. The condition affected gays. Similar to PCP, the disease was prevalent among those with a compromised immune system. A day after the CDC publication, the organization received countrywide cases of a KS, PCP, and other opportunistic conditions in this population.
On June 8, CDC formed a task force to investigate these opportunistic infections spreading across the US. This task force’s objective was to create a case definition and identify the risk factors contributing to these infections. On June 16, the National Institute of Health admitted the first AIDS patient, a White homosexual aged 35 years, who exhibited the symptoms of a severely compromised immune system. The man died 12 days later after being discharged. By August 28, CDC reported having received information about 70 cases of PCP and KS, which brought the total infections to 108 cases. Amongst those infected, 107 were men. Considerably, 94% of these men identified as bisexual or gay. About 40% of the patients had died during this period.
In December, Dr. Rubinstein, a pediatric immunologist from New York, treated five African-American infants exhibiting PCP symptoms and severe immunodeficiency. Three of these infants had mothers who worked as sex workers and used drugs. According to Dr. Rubinstein, these children exhibited symptoms similar to those of gay men with PCP and KS. By the end of the year, the US had a total of 337 reported cases. Amongst these cases, 16 were children below 13 years, while 321 were adolescents and adults. Out of the reported cases, 130 patients had died.
Fast forward to September, CDC coined the term “AIDS.” In the same publication, CDC provided its first case definition. CDC defined AIDS as “A disease at least moderately predictive of a defect in cell-mediated immunity, occurring in a person with no known cause for diminished resistance to that disease” (HIV.gov 2019). Four days later, congressman Ted Weiss and Philip Burton introduced a bill for allotting AIDS research funds. However, Congress failed to approve this legislation until the following year. On November 5, CDC released a publication with precautions for the laboratory and clinical staff who worked with patients manifesting AIDS symptoms. On December 10, the health agency established a connection between infected blood transfusion and AIDS after an infant who required multiple blood transfusion developed opportunistic infections and immunodeficiency. In the same month, CDC received 22 additional cases among infants (CANFAR, 2020). However, the agency did not make a definitive diagnosis
The San Francisco General Hospital opened the first AIDS clinic on January 1, intending to treat patients with this condition. Six days later, CDC held released another publication reporting the first AIDS cases among women (CANFAR, 2020). According to this report, women with HIV positive men had exhibited immunodeficiency. Another CDC report released on March 4 indicated that most of the AIDS cases were reported among gays with multiple partners. Besides, the cases were also present among drug users who share needs, Hemophilia patients, and Haitians. The report further suggested that AIDS transmission occurred primarily through blood transfusion and sexual intercourse.
Based on the magnitude of this epidemic, Congress passed legislation to allocate 12 million dollars toward AIDS research and intervention. Dr. Barré-Sinoussi from a French Institute found out that a retrovirus predisposed individual to immunodeficiency (HIV.gov 2019). Due to the growing concerns on the potential spread of AIDS, CDC published a report providing precautions on occupational exposure of AIDS to healthcare practitioners and other health professionals. On September 2. Eight days later, CDC released a publication identifying the major routs of HIV transmission. The publication ruled out exposure through environmental surfaces, air, water, food, or casual contact. On November 22, the WHO held the first convention to evaluate the first AIDS situation. During the same convention, the WHO recommended global HIV/AIDS surveillance.
According to the CDC publication on January 16, there was an 89% increase in AIDS cases in 1985, compared to the previous year. In these cases, 59% of children and 51% of adults had died (HIV.gov 2019). Hence, this publication hinted that it took 15 months between infection and deaths. Therefore, public health professionals predicted that these cases would double in 1986. The “International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses” identified HIV AIDS’ causative agent on May 1. The first AIDS conference held was the “National Conference on AIDS in the Black Community” (HIV.gov 2019). Minority communities held this conference to address HIV/AIDS concerns among people of color. On October 24, CDC published a report on disproportionate AIDS infections among Latinos and African Americans (CANFAR, 2020). The reason is that Latino and African American children accounted for 90% of AIDS cases acquired perinatally.
Due to the global burden of this epidemic, the WHO marked December 1 as “World AIDS Day” (HIV.gov 2019) The United Nations also supported this initiative. The theme was to promote joint efforts in fighting the epidemic. The US, on the other hand, developed the nationwide HIV/AIDS care system. The Ryan White CARE Act funded this care system. In 1989, 145 nations reported more than 140,000 HIV/AIDS cases. However, the WHO predicted that the total number of cases exceeded 400,000 globally. In June 1989, CDC provided guidelines for preventing PCP (Avert, 2020). During the same period, reported cases in the US reached 100,000.
San Francisco hosted the 6th “International AIDS Conference” in June 1990. The conference addressed the US immigration policy, which restricted HIV positive immigrants. The US adopted the “Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)” in July (HIV.gov 2019). The legislation prohibited discrimination against the disabled, including those with the virus. The FDA licensed the application of AZT for treating infected children in October. In December 1990, more than 300,000 cases were reported globally, though the real figure was close to a million (Avert, 2020). Estimates showed that up to 10 million people lived this HIV/AIDS globally
The Red Ribbon Project became the official global symbol of HIV/AIDS awareness in 1991. Later that year, Earvin Johnson, a basketball player, retired after confirming that he was HIV positive. Johnson revealed that he would use the opportunity to raise awareness among the youth about this virus. Thus, Johnson’s announcement helped change the stereotype on HIV/AIDS patients in the US.
The FDA, in 1995, license the use of protease inhibitors in treating this infection. Hence, this marked the onset of a “highly active antiretroviral treatment” (HAART). After the initiation of HAART, AIDS-related deaths decreased by 60% (Avert, 2020). On the other hand, hospitalization rates declined by 80% in nations that could afford this therapy. Despite this discovery, estimates showed that there were 4.7 million new infections globally (Roser & Ritchie 2019). About 1.9 and 2.5 million cases originated from sub-Saharan African and Southern Asia, respectively (Roser & Ritchie 2019).
In 1996, the UN adopted the “Joint United Nations Program on AIDS (UNAIDS)”. UNAIDS aimed at coordinating HIV/AIDS response and prompting a worldwide action on this epidemic. Substantially, the Vancouver AIDS Conference communicated the efficacy of HAART in the management of this epidemic. During the same year, the FDA licensed the new home testing kit. The test kit measured the viral load in patients’ blood. Additionally, the FDA approved a urine test for HIV and nevirapine for HIV treatment. Global reports also showed new outbreaks in China, Cambodia, Vietnam, India, and the Soviet Union. People living with this condition increased to 23 million worldwide.
The FDA licensed Combivir for HIV treatment in 1997. UNAIDS revealed that more than 30 million people had the virus with daily infections amounting to 16,000. In 1999, the WHO stated that this infection was the top killer in Africa and the fourth leading cause of mortality (Avert, 2020). Roughly 33 million people had the disease, while 14 million had passed away since the onset of this epidemic
UNAIDS engaged five pharmaceutical firms in July 2000 to decrease antiretroviral drugs’ prices to maximize access in developing nations (Avert, 2020). The UN also came up with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with a provision to avert the spread of TB, malaria, and HIV in September 2000.
The UN recommended the development of a “Global Fund” to support organizations and nations fight against HIV transmission in June 2001. The objective of this fund was to carter for HIV care, treatment, and prevention. In India, generic pharmaceutical companies also started to manufacture generic HIV medications to curb the impacts of the epidemic in developing nations. The Global Fund approved its first grants, which amounted to 600 million dollars in April, 2002. New studies indicated that male circumcision aided in reducing HIV transmission by 60% in 2006. Since this finding, UNAIDS and the WHO recommended and emphasized male circumcision in to prevent this infection.
Avert. (2020). History of HIV and AIDS overview. Avert. Retrieved from https://www.avert.org/professionals/history-hiv-aids/overview.
De Cock, K. M., Jaffe, H. W., & Curran, J. W. (2012). The evolving epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Aids, 26(10), 1205-1213
HIV.gov. (2019). Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Timeline. HIV.gov. Retrieved from https://www.hiv.gov/federal-response/ending-the-hiv-epidemic/overview.
Roser, M., & Ritchie, H. (2019). HIV/AIDS. Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/hiv-aids.
The Canadian Foundation for AIDS Research (CANFAR). (2020). History of HIV/AIDS and Overview. Retrieved from https://canfar.com/awareness/about-hiv-aids/history-of-hiv-aids/.
The Chronological Evolution of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic and Theories of Origin (Research Methods)
For the meta-analysis the researcher conducted a detailed virtual library research at Miami Regional University, and internet search across different databases to obtain articles and studies that relate to the research questions. Hence, the search focused on government websites and other credible agencies, EBSCO, Medline, and PubMed. This search’s objective was to identify reputable and unbiased articles and sources to address the study objective. During the search, some of the keywords utilized include “HIV/AIDS,” “HIV/AIDS epidemic,” “HIV/AIDS chronological evolution,” “the history of HIV/AIDS,” “theory of HIV/AIDS origin,” and “HIV/AIDS epidemic timeline.”
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
Time limit. The search focused on analyzing studies published since 2000. The reason is that most of the accurate articles were published during this period as the epidemic spread across populations. Besides, these articles offer details of the outbreak in different continents apart from the US.
Language. All the articles selected for this research are published in English.
Study population. The research focused on the affected populations and some of the interventions adopted to curb the epidemic.
The data extraction process focused on identifying information related to the topic in these articles. Therefore, any data associated with the chronological evolution and theories of HIV/AIDS origin. The process entailed identifying themes in these sources, such as the discovery of the disease, its transmission, and other trends themes.
The researcher categorized the findings into theses. The themes were based on the progress of the epidemic since its discovery to the control using antiretroviral drugs and awareness programs. The researcher also outlined and provided details of the theories of origin while recognizing the weaknesses in these theories.
A timeline of HIV and AIDS. (2020, May 13). HIV.gov. https://www.hiv.gov/federal-response/ending-the-hiv-epidemic/overview/ending-epidemic-timeline.
Enwereji, E. E., & Eke, R. A. (2016). Review of useful theories for working with people who are living with HIV and AIDS. Journal of Clinical Research in HIV AIDS and Prevention, 2(3), 30.
Harindra, V. (2008). HIV: Past, present and future. Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS, 29(1), 1.
Katrak, S. M. (2006). The origin of HIV and AIDS: An enigma of evolution. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 9(1), 5.
History of HIV and AIDS overview. (2019, October 10). Avert. https://www.avert.org/professionals/history-hiv-aids/overview.
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